Windows Recovery Hints
Plan Ahead for Disaster
Develop a recovery strategy before your computer fails. Even a basic plan is better than no plan at all.
You Can't Depend Upon Electronic Documents
Be sure to print your computer's instructions on how to recover a non-functioning computer. If you can't access your computer you won't have access to that documentation.
- You'll be unable to read any recovery instructions in electronic format (PDF).
- You won't have access to the Internet.
While another computer or device may allow access to the Internet, you must know exact details about your computer's hardware and operating system to obtain documentation online. You must also have access to any documentation proprietary to the disabled device.
Recovery partitions have replaced recovery media in today's computers.
Create Recovery Media Immediately
It is critical that you create these recovery media using the manufacturer's instructions.
Some manufacturers (like HP) will only let you create the recovery media once.
- The system must be in good working order to create the media.
- Some systems require recovery media to access the recovery partition.
- If the hard drive fails, recovery media is the only way to recreate the recovery partition.
Once created, label them clearly and save them in a safe place.
Recovery media will generally offer two options:
- to recover just the operating system; or
- a factory restore (the condition when shipped from the factory).
A factory restore will wipe the drive and remove all applications and data that didn't come with the computer.
Windows 10 built-in recovery options allow you to:
- restore Windows 10 with your programs and files intact; or
- wipe the hard drive and do a clean install of Windows 10.
Current Backups Critical
It is strongly recommended that you create a fresh backup prior to doing any procedure which could potentially result in the loss of data (e.g., Windows Update, upgrading Windows, installing a new hard drive).
The only way to ensure that you can recover your data and programs is to have a recent and reliable backup of your data (photos, documents, emails, etc.).
The more recent and complete your backups, the more likely you'll be able to recover everything you lost in a crash.
See backup & recovery strategies to develop a strategy that suites your requirements.
Windows Recovery Tools
Windows provides a number of recovery tools that can help you recover from problems with Windows without resorting to a clean install (wiping the computer and reinstalling everything).
Try these methods first, then move to a clean install if you're unable to recovery your computer.
Depending upon the version of Windows you are running the files needed for a system recovery differ. See the sidebar for specifics on how recovery is accomplished in Windows 8.1, 10 and 11 (pending).
Recovery from a severe crash or system instability that won't allow Windows to load correctly requires advanced knowledge when using these tools.
If you're uncomfortable with this process, get a local computer service to do this for you.
In Greater Victoria
Hire Russ Harvey Consulting
Be sure to keep a recent backup of all your important data. Having your data and program settings backed up will give you more options, especially if you have to call upon a professional to restore your system.
Many technicians won't bother to try to recover data, but simply restore your computer to working condition. It takes time to recover data from a non-working system and many folks save files in unusual locations.
Most shops do not bother with backups in order to stay "competitive" and avoid issues with missed data. That places the onus on you to have current backups.
Modern Windows versions have a recovery function called System Restore (it may be turned off by default in Windows 10 or 11).
System Restore keeps track of significant files and settings in Windows, so that you can recover from a corruption in Windows caused by a corrupt installation of software or a driver.
System Restore keeps a series of restore points (a backup of various critical Windows files at a certain time, including registry entries and drivers) in a hidden area on the hard drive. Windows automatically makes certain restore points, but you can also create a restore point prior to making a change to your system that you might need to undo.
System Restore will neither affect your data nor recover lost data or programs.
Getting to System Restore
If your Windows loads OK you may be able to use System Restore to return your system to a state before a problematic driver was loaded or your Windows Registry was corrupted. Be sure to close all running programs before starting System Restore.There are various methods of opening System Restore, depending upon your version of Windows and how it is configured.
- Windows 8 users can search for “restore point” in settings.
- Windows 10 users can right-click on the Start menu then select System then System Protection.
- You may need to enable System Restore in Windows 10 so that you can undo a bad Windows Update in the future.
- Support for System Restore in Windows 11 is uncertain but will likely work similar to Windows 10, if present.
You can only use System Restore on the drives where it is enabled via the Configure button.
- Clicking on System Restore will allow you to restore your computer to an earlier time (you can choose a different restore point than the one recommended).
- Clicking on Create allows you to create a new restore point.
- How to Use Windows System Restore from the Command Prompt.
Safe Mode starts a minimal Windows environment with only the essential drivers and files are loaded. Video resolution is greatly reduced and startup programs are not launched.
Some of the reasons you may enter Safe Mode include:
- corrupt video drivers (you'll need to restore a basic video driver before you can start Windows and reinstall the correct drivers);
- removing difficult software that loads at startup; and
- cleaning up malware or virus infections (these often reinstall themselves at boot time from hidden files).
UEFI Boot Environment
Windows 8 and 10 were designed to run on the UEFI boot environment rather than the BIOS system used in earlier computers so the process is a little different.
Windows 11 adds the requirement for TPM 2.0 in a secure boot environment.
Launching Safe Mode in Windows 10 or 11
The Shift+F8 key combination will NOT work in Windows 10 (or 11).
- Microsoft's Start your PC in safe mode in Windows 10 includes instructions on how to exit safe mode.
- How to enter Windows 10 safe mode (video).
- How to boot into Windows 10's Safe Mode has the above video embedded but includes other options.
Launching Safe Mode in Windows 8
Try pressing the Shift+F8 key combination or just hold the Shift key and click Restart from within Windows (or at the login screen).
- You may need to toggle the F-Lock key (if it is present), to enable the F8 key.
- If the computer begins to beep continually, release the F8 key.
- If you see the Windows login screen, you'll have to let Windows load then restart your computer to try again.
Other Advanced Boot Options
Other boot options are available on the Advanced Options Menu, including:
- Safe Mode with Networking provides access to other computers on your network and to the Internet.
- Last Known Good Configuration restores Windows to the condition it was in when it last loaded correctly.
- Start Windows Normally will load Windows in the regular fashion. If you were having problems last time you attempted to load Windows this option may not work.
Additional options exist, but most users are unable to take advantage of them.
Bootable Recovery Disk
Each Windows version has some sort of a bootable recovery option or disk. See Recovering Windows in the sidebar.
If you don't have the ability to recover your computers operating system and programs you'll need to perform a clean install.
If your computer came with a Windows 10 licence (or you upgraded from an earlier version of Windows) you'll need to know where your licence is for a clean install.
A Last Resort
This is usually a last resort when all other recovery methods have failed, but a clean install can also resolve accumulated performance problems.
The Steps Involved
Performing a clean install involves these steps:
- Format the hard drive.
- Install the base operating system.
- Apply all system updates.
- Reinstall your programs.
- Restore your data.
This is a relatively involved process which will remove any programs which didn't come with your operating system as well as your data. Backups are essential.
Restoring Windows 10 & 11
Fortunately, Windows 10 and 11 has made this process much easier.
- Open Recovery options (Start ⇒ Settings ⇒ Update & Security ⇒ Recovery).
- Choose Reset this PC.
The “Reset Your PC” feature in Windows 10 restores your PC to its factory default settings, including all that bloatware your PC manufacturer included.
— How-To Geek
Fresh start removes third-party antivirus software and all apps that don't come standard with Windows.
This includes Microsoft apps such as Office, any desktop apps that came preinstalled on your device, and any Windows desktop apps, such as your device manufacturer's apps, support apps, and drivers.
It keeps only Microsoft Store apps that your manufacturer installed.
Hire a Professional
If you're uncomfortable with this process, hire a professional to do it for you.
In Greater Victoria
Hire Russ Harvey Consulting
Be sure you have backups of any data since things can go wrong. The shop is not liable for your data. You know whats important to you and what can be ignored.
Preparing for a Clean Install
A clean install requires you to do some preparation first:
- Backup all your data.
- Ensure you have the installation media and licence keys for all software (particularly software you purchased online).
- Deregister any programs that are restricted to on computer to preserver the rights to reinstall it again afterwards (such as Adobe Photoshop not licensed using a Creative Cloud subscription). This function is usually in the Help or Options menu.
- Uninstall any programs that require it. If unsure, uninstall the program.
If your computer came with a Windows 10 licence (or you upgraded from an earlier version of Windows) you'll need to know where your licence is for a clean install:
Hard Drive Failure
In situations where you're unable to do this (such as a hard drive failure), you may lose all your data and programs — which is why a recent backup is critical if you care about your photos and other data.
Some software providers may provide the ability to reinstall a registered program if you contact their support department and explain that you've lost the ability to recover a functioning Windows installation. If not, you'll need to purchase the program again.
Once you've completed these preparations, you'll need to reinstall Windows.
This process will destroy ALL information currently on the disk.
There are two options available to you:
- recovery from within Windows; and
- booting to a recovery drive (USB or DVD).
If possible, try to recover from within Windows first because it gives you the most options to save current settings and data.
Recovery Within Windows 8 or 10 (11)
Windows 8 and 10 provide the ability to recover Windows from within Windows itself.
Click Start ⇒ Settings ⇒ Update & Security ⇒ Recovery.
Can't Boot into Windows?
There are two situations where you cannot recover from within Windows:
- If you're unable to boot into Windows.
- If you're upgrading from a 32-bit version of Windows to a 64-bit version.
You'll need to boot from installation media then do a clean install:
- Download the latest Windows installer;
- Create Windows 10 installation media;
- Boot from the DVD or USB to do a clean install (your only option).
You'll need to choose the option to install Windows 10 on a different PC using a blank USB flash drive with at least 8GB of space or blank DVD.
The DVD option only works if you have a DVD burner on both the computer you're creating the media on and the computer you're installing Windows on. DVD capability is increasingly rare.
Windows Installation DVD
You can also do a clean install using the Windows installation DVD. Vendors seldom provide these.
Choose the custom (advanced) install rather than the upgrade. You'll need to format the existing partitions (at least the current C: partition). Optionally, you'll want to delete all partitions and let Windows create the partitions it needs.
WARNING: deleting or formatting partitions wipes all existing data.
The DVD will copy installation files onto the hard drive then Windows will reboot several times as it completes the install.
During the first reboot you'll want to be sure that the computer boots to the primary hard drive, NOT the Windows DVD.
Manufacturers Recovery Partitions
If your computer came with the operating system you wish to reinstall (e.g., Windows 10), you can use the manufacturer's recovery partition if you have the media.
Like the Windows Installation Disk, you'll boot to the recovery disk and follow instructions.
There is generally at least two options:
- one that retains the programs and data (a repair); and
- one that restores the computer to the condition it was when it was shipped from the manufacturer.
This second option is the clean install option during which all existing programs and data will be destroyed.
The computer will be restored to the condition it was when shipped including the original (not updated) versions of programs and will not include any personalization.
Windows & Program Updates
Regardless of whether you used the Windows Installation Disk or the Manufacturers Recovery Disk, you will need to do the following once the reinstallation is complete:
- Uninstall any obsolete or unnecessary programs (like old versions of Java, Adobe Reader, FlashPlayer, obsolete security software, etc.). These make your computer unsafe.
- Run Windows Update to install all recommended updates. Optional updates may be necessary to update drivers. Microsoft has made it difficult to fully update obsolete Windows computers so you'll need to search for a solution (it can change monthly).
- Download and install a current version of security software, browser, utilities and other software.
- Restore your data from your backups.
- Configure and customize Windows to restore the look and feel you prefer.
I recommend you keep a current list of the software you use on your computer and any licence numbers required in a safe place where you can find them. This will make it easier to recover in situations like this.