Your Choice of Browser Matters
First and foremost, the browser is one tool everyone uses. No matter your platform, you depend on a web browser.
I would go so far as to say 90% of the work and entertainment you undertake on any computing device connected to the Internet is via a web browser.
That means those ubiquitous applications have to pull a tremendous load.
Your choice of browser affects not only what tools are available to you or how convenient the browser is, but also how much information you share in the process.
Chrome may be leading in usage (except, of course, on Apple devices), but it's not ahead by every measure or by number of capabilities. Firefox, Edge, Safari, and Opera all have features not found in Google's browser.
The Internet only stays healthy if we trust it as a safe place — to explore, transact, connect, and create. Our privacy and security online is under constant threat.
But there's something you can do about it: get informed, protect yourself, and make your voice heard. A healthy Internet depends on you.
Browsers Continually Evolving
Each browser has strengths and weaknesses which can change over time.
For example, Internet Explorer is obsolete and unsafe to use.
Whichever browser you choose, the most recent version will usually have improved security features and known security issues will be patched.
Consider Security and Privacy
When making your choice, consider how well the browser handles privacy and security.
To be “secure,” a modern browser must meet certain requirements.
The lengthy list of requirements mentioned by the German Federal Office for Information Security is a good place to start.
Consider how your default browser does in meeting these requirements or choose one that better protects your security.
Because of the massive impact of the surveillance economy on privacy, it is important that you choose a browser that preserves as much privacy as possible.
Google Chrome is a poor privacy choice because Google's business model depends upon the collection of private information.
Mozilla has long been at the forefront of trying to improve privacy on the web.
The company even came up with the Do Not Track option for browsers….
Firefox was the first browser with a private browsing mode that could hide browsing not only from people with access to your device, but also from other sites.
- 6 Reasons to switch from Chrome to Firefox.
- The best browser for Linux, Windows and Mac isn't Google Chrome.
Privacy and Search Engine Settings
Check your browser's settings rather than accepting its defaults including its default search engine.
A search engine can leave behind a history that can last for years.
Adding third party extensions and addons can either improve your privacy or expose you to malicious information gathering.
Clear Private Data
Regularly clear your privacy data (cookies, saved form information, cache and authenticated sessions).
Perform this clearing before and after visiting sites like online banking and other sites where you logon, especially when site contents are sensitive or confidential.
Private Windows or Incognito Mode Not Secure
Modern browsers have a privacy mode that doesn't retain site history.
- Firefox and Microsoft Edge call this a private window.
- Google Chrome calls it incognito mode.
Incognito mode does NOT protect your privacy online:
It is a myth that you can't be tracked while using so-called "Incognito mode." In fact, Incognito mode mainly just deletes information on your computer and does nothing to stop Google from saving your searches, nor does it stop companies, Internet service providers, or governments from being able to track you across the Internet.
Firefox's Private Browsing Mode shields the information from websites as well as other users on your computer.
Delete Browsing History
Many browsers default to saving your browsing history, even after the browser is closed. Firefox provides options for address bar search requests:
Retaining browsing history can lead to privacy issues because it can be valuable to others for marketing and profiling purposes.
I recommend that you change your browser settings to clear search history and other tracking data when the browser closes or use a third-party utility like CCleaner for that purpose.
Use Bookmarks To Remember Important Sites
If you clear the search history, you need another method of remembering sites you want to come back to.
While not as complete as the search history, bookmarks (or favorites) can mark important sites, even temporary ones.
Keep Them Organized
Your bookmarks can quickly become disorganized if you simply drop them into a single location.
While you can use a search function, it is probably better to use a series of folders and subfolders to organize similar content.
- Use a “Current” folder to manage new bookmarks, moving them to a permanent sorted location when you realize that you want to keep them.
- Use general titles for the main folders, adding more specific subfolders to group similar bookmarks.
- Backup your bookmarks frequently. In Firefox, go to Manage Bookmarks then Import/Export when the Library window appears.
Reviewing your bookmarks from time-to-time can help to eliminate bookmarks you no longer need or those that no longer point to the resource you bookmarked.
Tracking in Web Links
When bookmarking or forwarding links, be sure to remove special tracking codes included at the end of the web address (URL). These are often found in email or social media links:
- Links with
?utm_source=usually include the site referring the link.
?ftag=includes tags that track an email campaign or similar criteria.
?sh=is a form used by Forbes.com to track links (e.g.,
Be sure to check that the link works without the tracking code before bookmarking or forwarding the link.
In this example from Twitter, the link contains extensive tracking mechanisms:
This link is normally displayed in one long string:
You'd only want to include the base link text:
DuckDuckGo Privacy Essentials helps stop companies from gathering your browsing history and other information via personal identifiers embedded in the links you click on.
Don't simply install your browser. Customize the settings to ensure that you've locked it down as tightly as you can.
Do Not Track
Do Not Track (DNT) is a browser setting where the user can indicate that they don't want to be tracked.
Most sites ignore the setting with a statement similar to the following:
At this time, there is no general agreement on how companies interpret Do Not Track signals. This site does not currently respond to DNT signals, whether the signal is received on a computer or on a mobile device.
…Google swiftly rendered [DNT] useless by discouraging its use in market-leading Chrome; that only makes sense for the company that bases much of its business on tracking users.
Even when Do Not Track is enabled, some facilities track store visitors via their cell phone using Mobile Location Analytics.
It will probably take legislation to enforce such a mechanism since both corporations and governments are complicit in the wholesale collection of metadata without court oversight.
If if wasn't so profitable to track users and their metadata, I'm sure that privacy would be protected just like copyright and patents.
Still Worth Setting
It is still worth setting the DNT.
[D]espite the fact that only a small number of companies respect it — a significant number of companies like Twitter, Medium and others do respect it.
— Jules Polonetsky
Privacy Badger Work-around
Privacy Badger blocks tracking and enforces DNT even in the absence of voluntary industry compliance.
Much of the Internet is broken, a result of greed and exploitation at the expense of those who simply want information and entertainment.
These recommendations make your browsing safer.
Use Encrypted HTTPS Sites Where Possible
HTTPS is a secure protocol used by websites that encrypts traffic between the site's server and your browser.
The content of your web request and the reply that comes back can't easily be monitored by other people on the network.
This makes it much harder (nearly, if not absolutely, impossible) for attackers to eavesdrop on secrets such as passwords, credit card numbers, documents, private photos and other personal files that show up in your network traffic.
HTTPS traffic isn't just encrypted, it's also subjected to an integrity test. This stops attackers sneakily altering or corrupting data in transit, such as replacing bank account numbers, changing payment amounts or modifying contract details.
— Sophos Blog
Secure sites are indicated by
https:// (notice the trailing “s”) in the website address and/or some sort of a padlock symbol. The display varies by browser:
- Firefox, Google Chrome, Safari, Microsoft Edge and Opera all use a padlock to the left of the address.
- The shield beside the padlock in Firefox indicates enhanced tracking protection.
- Firefox and Edge display the HTTPS prefix. Chrome, Safari and Opera don't.
Connect Only to HTTPS Sites
Only connect to sites that are encrypted with HTTPS (HTTP over TLS), especially if you're logging into a site or sharing personal information.
HTTPS across the Web is good for Internet Health because it makes a more secure environment for everyone. It provides integrity, so a site can't be modified, and authentication, so users know they're connecting to the legit site and not some attacker.
Lacking any one of these three properties can cause problems. More non-secure sites means more risk for the overall Web.
— Mozilla Blog
This is particularly important when using online banking or when shopping online — anywhere that you are sharing banking or credit card details.
Avoid Unsecured Sites
Unsecured (non-HTTPS) sites are vulnerable to man-in-the-middle attacks.
Without HTTPS, there are many places along the way between your browser and the other end where not-so-innocent third parties could easily eavesdrop on (and falsify) your web browsing.
Those eavesdroppers could be nosy neighbours who have figured out your Wi-Fi password, other users in the coffee shop you're visiting, curious colleagues on your work LAN, your ISP, cybercriminals, or even your government.
— Sophos Blog
Site owners should ensure their site is encrypted if they wish to retain the trust of visitors to their site.
Many sites scrape information and engage in cross-site tracking. Facebook and Google are the worst offenders.
The surveillance economy is a one sided bargain that only benefits advertisers and data brokers.
Watch for Insecure Content on HTTPS Sites
Watch for warnings on HTTPS sites that indicate that some content is not being handled securely.
This degrades the security of the site. Most browsers mark these sites as insecure.
HTTPS:// Everywhere is a browser extension that encrypts your communications with many major websites, making your browsing more secure.
- Mozilla's HTTPS and your online security looks at the strengths and weakness of HTTPS.
Enable HTTPS on Your Websites
If you're a site owner, ensure that your site has HTTPS enabled by default. HTTPS sites are more secure and load faster.
Now, with the ever increasing percentage of HTTPS sites, it is the share of sites using the HTTP protocol that is getting smaller and smaller.
Chrome and Firefox Now Default to HTTPS Sites
Browsers are starting to default to HTTPS sites in order to help secure the Web.
- Google Chrome will now give loading preference to HTTPS sites.
- Firefox HTTPS-only mode places a full-screen warning for insecure sites before allowing temporary access.
This is annoying to site visitors and greatly reduces confidence in non-HTTPS sites, which is bound to affect your SEO.
What's stopping you from securing your site with HTTPS?
HTTPS certification used to be expensive but Let's Encrypt, a non-profit option, now provides free site certificates.
Enabling HTTPS requires action on your part, including changes in your hosting service settings. Cost should no longer be a factor.
I strongly recommend Firefox for privacy and performance. See Firefox's privacy notice.
Not only is Firefox more secure, but Mozilla is a non-profit organization dedicated to protecting privacy. Mozilla has no ties to an operating system or search engine company and is one of the few remaining browsers NOT based on Chromium.
Firefox products have never — and never will never — buy or sell user data.
— IRL Podcast
Built-in Privacy Features
Firefox has built-in privacy and security features that are designed to keep you safe, but are flexible enough that you get to choose your settings.
Firefox also has a good privacy story, with a private mode that not only discards a session's history and cookies but also hides your activities from third-party tracking sites during the private session.
Firefox recently implemented DNS over HTTPS, which hides your web address lookups from your ISP. Firefox also has built-in Content Blocking to fend off known trackers and cryptocurrency-mining ploys.
Firefox's privacy settings are located Privacy tab: Settings ⇒ Privacy & Security. Be sure to review all the settings as you go.
When you come to History I recommend checking Clear history when Firefox closes. You can choose which items get removed by clicking the Settings button located to the right:
Rather than retaining your browsing history, bookmark sites you may want to come back to later in a temporary folder (I use a “Current” folder). If you decide the bookmark is valuable, move it to a location where you can easily find it later.
Private Browsing Mode
Firefox's Private Browsing mode allows you to surf without saving information about the sites and pages you've visited. Neither cookies nor passwords are saved.
Mozilla VPN Recommended
If you want to go further to protect your privacy, Mozilla VPN is my recommendation because Mozilla is committed to protecting your privacy — unlike many of the other VPN services. That's not to say that no others are worthy, only that Mozilla's record speaks for itself.
Firefox HTTPS-only Mode
Firefox introduced HTTPS-only mode in version 83 (November 17, 2020).
HTTPS provides a secure, encrypted connection between Firefox and the websites you visit. Most websites support HTTPS, and if HTTPS-Only Mode is enabled, then Firefox will upgrade all connections to HTTPS.
If an HTTPS option cannot be located, Firefox warns you that a secure connection is not available, telling your that it is most likely that the site doesn't support HTTPS, including this caveat:
It's also possible that an attacker is involved. If you decide to visit the website, you should not enter any sensitive information like passwords, emails, or credit card details.
If you continue, HTTPS-Only Mode will be turned off temporarily for this site.
Firefox DNS Over HTTPS (DoH)
DNS (Domain Name Server) is the process by which the domain name that is easier for humans to remember (e.g., Wikipedia.org) is converted into the numerical address (e.g., 184.108.40.206) that computers on the Internet can understand.
Unfortunately, this process can be tracked or spoofed, so Mozilla added security:
We are introducing two new features to fix this — Trusted Recursive Resolver (TRR) and DNS over HTTPS (DoH). Because really, there are three threats here:
- You could end up using an untrustworthy resolver that tracks your requests, or tampers with responses from DNS servers.
- On-path routers can track or tamper in the same way.
- DNS servers can track your DNS requests.
- — Mozilla
- Intro to DNS over HTTPS explains the terminology and issues involved.
- CIRA Canadian Shield Private DNS the default for Canadian Firefox users.
If you're like most people, you're probably using Google Chrome as your default browser. It's hard to fault Google's record on security and patching but privacy is another matter for the online ad giant.
Google Chrome is now the dominant browser (of the major players, only Firefox and Safari are not based upon Chromium).
If I had to take a guess, I'd say Google is just lucky the average user either doesn't like change or doesn't even realize there are alternative browsers available.
If you happen to fall into that category, I highly suggest you install Firefox and see if you don't find yourself setting it as the default browser on all of your devices and platforms.
Chrome's Privacy Issues
Chrome collects your surfing data and there are significant privacy concerns.
Chrome doesn't seem to have a privacy setting to clear data when the browser closes. You need to manually clear data — Settings ⇒ Privacy & Security — or use a third-party utility like CCleaner.
Chrome also doesn't fully shut down when you close it.
Turn off background services by opening the System settings (Settings ⇒ System) and unchecking Continue running background apps when Chrome is closed:
A Global Monopoly
Google's monopoly goes far beyond their browser's dominance.
Google is now the world's largest marketing company which now threatens the future of the open Web and the digital economy.
We created the monster that Google Chrome has become. Only we can destroy it.
Google now controls a significant majority of both Web searches and browser installations, giving Google a monopoly on access to content on the Web.
Google purchased existing companies with expertise in areas they traditionally didn't have, then combined the users' data from all their companies to create powerful search and advertising profiles.
Google Never Forgets
Google makes their money by exploiting the information you provide both intentionally and unintentionally. Google never forgets.
Don't Sign-in To Google
Signing into your Google account when using Chrome provides you with access to all your bookmarks and history from any number of computers, phones and tablets.
Clearing the data on your computer doesn't remove it from Google's servers where it resides forever.
You may miss some of the conveniences by not signing in, but you provide less information to Google.
The Microsoft Edge Legacy was released with Windows 10 in 2015. It was built with a proprietary EdgeHTML engine but replaced in early 2020 with the New Edge.
The most important difference between the new Edge and Google Chrome strikes right at the heart of Google's business model. By default, the new Edge turns on tracking protection and sets it to Balanced, which blocks many ads and almost all third-party tracking code.
- Microsoft Edge vs. Google Chrome: Performance, design, security, and more.
- Microsoft Edge history on Wikipedia.
Edge Privacy Settings
Edge's privacy settings are closer to Firefox's than Chrome's.
Edge has more privacy settings than Chrome, and it's much easier to track them down. For example, Edge can block trackers from sites you've visited and those you haven't. It can also reduce the odds of your personalized information being shared across sites.
— Digital Trends
Open the privacy settings (Settings ⇒ Privacy, search & services) then review each of the settings as you go to personalize your privacy preferences.
Edge, like Chrome, doesn't fully shut down when you close it.
Turn off background services (Settings ⇒ System & performance ⇒ Continue running background apps when Microsoft Edge is closed) to close Edge when you're not using it:
Edge's Monopoly Tactics
For many years Microsoft used their operating system dominance to force people to use Internet Explorer (IE). They agreed to international browser standards then promptly broke them with IE, ensuring a poor experience with IE-based websites on other browsers.
Microsoft's latest tactic added links within Windows 11 that force the user to open certain resources with Edge rather than their choice of browser:
With the launch of Windows 11, Microsoft made it difficult to change the default browser, but soon users will be forced to use Edge for certain tasks.
Microsoft uses microsoft-edge:// links instead of https:// for specific features in Windows, like links to online news, weather, or Start Menu search results.
EdgeDeflector was designed to restore functionality to your chosen browser, but Microsoft has disabled that extension in the latest update.
These aren't the actions of an attentive company that cares about its product anymore. Microsoft isn't a good steward of the Windows operating system. They're prioritizing ads, bundleware, and service subscriptions over their users' productivity.
— Daniel Aleksandersen
Safari is Apple's default browser and they have made great efforts to improve the privacy protections.
The “Good Privacy” Browser
Some of those changes were aimed at fighting ad-tracking and digital fingerprinting of the Safari browser.
Safari Privacy Settings
Safari has some unique privacy measures (Preferences ⇒ Privacy).
However, there is no automatic removal of browsing data except the ability to clear your history after a minimum of one day (Preferences ⇒ General).