Russ Harvey Consulting - Computer and Internet Services

Web Design Resources

Standards | Validation | HTML Basics | Graphics | JavaScript | SEO

Design resources like HTML basics, standards and validation.

While you can use most recent word processors and any number of web page creation software titles to create your own website, you need to be aware of their limitations and be sure you're producing the sort of site that is usable to your intended audience.

There comes a time when you may need to know enough about the underlying layout used to build websites to correct a problem with your page or incorporate some of the newer techniques you observe while surfing other sites.

HTML Basics


In order to discuss this, you'll have to understand a few basic terms.

  • HTML (HyperText Markup Language) is the base markup used to display content on the Web.
  • CSS (Cascading Style Sheets) are used to alter the way various elements look on a site without having to redefine each and every paragraph. In more advanced sites, like this one, it separates the content from the layout by defining the layout in the CSS.
  • XML (Extensible Markup Language) is related to HTML, but XML was designed to carry data, not to display data, an important distinction.
  • XHTML (Extensible HyperText Markup Language) is an application of XML resulting in a much stricter implementation of HTML 4.
  • DOM (Document Object Model) defines the way that a page is intended to be displayed, including which version of HTML it uses and how strict the interpretation should be.
  • JavaScript can be used to generate dynamic content on websites, like fly-out menus and roll-over images.

HTML Primer

HTML is a markup language. Perhaps the easiest way to understand this is to use an example from a standard word processing program. When you write something, you can choose to add bold or italics or underline to a selection of text. This doesn't alter the text, only how it is displayed.

In the same manner, HTML doesn't alter the text, only how the browser displays it. HTML is not an arcane code in the same manner as computer programming might be. If you look closely at the source (click on the View menu, then select Page Source—some browsers may use different terminology) of this page, you'll see that this is so.

For example, look at this section of HTML:

<p><strong>This is a sentence displayed in bold text.<strong></p>

is displayed as follows:

This is a sentence displayed in bold text.

  • <p> and </p> tell the browser to display the text in a paragraph.
  • <strong> and <strong> tell the browser to display "strong" (usually bold) text.

Basic HTML Editing

This site offers more of this very basic introduction to HTML. Cut 'N Paste HTML Editing is intended for those wishing to edit an existing hand-coded HTML document using cut and paste techniques. It is not an extensive education in HTML.

More Extensive HTML Instruction

For more extensive instruction in HTML check out these resources:

HTML Reference Links

HTML Basics Links

HTML Courses

CSS Basics

Simplifying Things

CSS (Cascading Style Sheets) can be defined at the top of a page or in a separate external CSS file. You can also redefine an element within a page, but that is nowhere nearly as useful.

By defining the way elements like headers and paragraphs display (e.g. the font, colour, indent, spacing and more) in an external CSS file, you can avoid repeatedly re-defining these elements if a simple change is needed site-wide.

For example, if you'd built a 30 page site to display everything in Arial brown, only to find out that the customer wanted Verdana and hated brown, the amount of work you had to do would depend on how the site was coded:

  • If you'd used the traditional method of defining every paragraph as you went along, you'd have a long night ahead of you — 30 pages with dozens of paragraphs each.
  • If you'd used an external CSS file, you'd only need to redefine one file.

If you want to see this explained more graphically, have a look at Adding CSS.

CSS Example Sites

The following sites will give you an idea of the power and flexibility of CSS:

  • css Zen Garde: The Beauty in CSS Design dramatically illustrates how changing CSS can alter the look of the same content.
  • Complexspiral Demo demonstrates some spectacular results using CSS. This page may be a little technical, but the clever use of background images is worth the visit even for novices. Scroll near to the bottom of the page to load different views.

CSS Reference Links

Return to top

Web Graphics

If you aren't adept at creating your own graphics for your page you can find some on the Web.

Respect Copyright

Respect the copyrights and requirements stated on the site where you obtain images. Ensure you can meet the conditions of use before using images on your site.

  • Some sites also post material sent to them by their users, so even the site host cannot be 100% certain about the copyright.
  • The fact that their site stated the images were free will not release you from legal repercussions if they are wrong.

Royalty-free is Not the Same as Free

Royalty-free, or RF, refers to the right to use copyrighted material or intellectual property without the need to pay royalties or license fees for each use or per volume sold, or some time period of use or sales. — Wikipedia (emphasis mine)

Link Back Required

Most sources of free images require that you link back to their site. Read the conditions of use to be sure you can comply with all the requirements before downloading images.

I recommend creating a folder specifically for the site where you obtained the images and including a note about the conditions of use to remind yourself of any obligations.

Personal Use Only

Most sites will NOT allow you to use free images commercially. You can use them on personal websites, but not on company websites or on projects for commercial use (some make an exception for non-profit use).

Link-back Graphics

Many companies and individuals create various graphics to put on your page that are intended only to link back to their site. An example is the “Get Adobe Reader” button.

Images on This Site Copyrighted

Do not copy any images on this site without obtaining my direct written permission. Some images are licensed for my own use and which cannot be relicensed. See the site copyright, legal and privacy statements for more information.

Web Graphics and Stock Photography

Free membership required to download or purchase images on most sites.

Free Images

Be sure to read the conditions of use for the images on these sites. Unless specifically permitted, images cannot be used on commercial sites or projects; most others require a link back to the site hosting the image.

Stock Photography

While free is attractive, stock photos provide better quality and selection. No link backs are required, providing a better experience for your site visitors.

You can purchase a license for a specific image for one site or project. Other options may be available.

  • Can Stock Photo affordable royalty-free stock photography.
  • Dreamstime provides a wide range of stock photography and high quality digital images at affordable prices.
  • Fotolia royalty-free stock photography (purchased by Adobe Stock).
  • Fotosearch royalty free and rights managed stock photography, illustrations, maps, video, and audio.
  • GoGraph inexpensive royalty-free stock photography, illustrations and footage.
  • iStockphoto royalty-free stock photography.
  • Stock.XCHNG free stock photography.

Other Resources

There are many other resources on the Web that don't necessarily fit within any category. They'll be listed below.

  • Apps, Tools, and Resources — for everything they never taught you in art school.
  • Mighty Deals offers time-limited specials, including royalty-free images at a discount for use on commercial projects.

Return to top


What is JavaScript?

JavaScript is a scripting language was developed by Netscape and is primarily used to make websites more interactive. This use of JavaScript is sometimes referred to as Dynamic HTML (or DHTML).

JavaScript is Not Java

While both Java and JavaScript are registered trademarks of Sun Microsystems, Inc. (now owned by Oracle), JavaScript is not Java.

  • Java uses applets or programs which need to be compiled in order for them to work.
  • JavaScript is a scripting language which uses text scripts to alter behaviour of text, images and links such as rollovers and other effects (sometimes referred to as DHTML or dynamic HTML).

For example, this site uses JavaScript to open links pointing to external sites in a new window (or tab) while retaining compliance with HTML standards.

The following pages have more detailed information about JavaScript and how it differs from Java:

JavaScript Support Varies

Not all browsers are created equal when it comes to the implementation of JavaScript. Choose your use of JavaScripts carefully so as not to disappoint your viewers. As well, JavaScript can be disabled within a browser, degrading the user's experience on a DHTML-enhanced site.

More JavaScript Information

Here are some JavaScript sites that may be useful to you:

  • About JavaScript from Mozilla Developer Network provides a broader definition of JavaScript as well as resources.
  • QuirksMode deals with a number of DHTML tools, including JavaScript.
  • Dynamic Drive has various JavaScripts that you can use. Read the guidelines first.
  • JavaScript Source is another JavaScript resource.
  • Doc JavaScript is a more advanced JavaScript site.

Return to top


Search engines provide one of the best ways to locate information on the Internet but the user and website owner have different purposes.

A search engine's job is to correctly interpret the search terms so that the most likely results appear at the top.

The designer's challenge is to get their site listed within the first page of listings for the relevant search terms for their business or topic.

Search Engine Optimization

Search engine optimization (SEO) is the term used for the methods used to obtain the best ranking possible. It is important to understand that most search engines will determine your ranking based upon the relevance of the information on your site.

When you do a search on Google — doesn't matter what you're searching for — which would you rather find? A website that used every single SEO trick in the book to game their way to the top? Or would you rather find a website that has exactly what you're looking for — backed by authoritative and reliable content? — Kyle Reyes

SEO Pitfalls

Site rankings are at least partly determined by how many sites link back to you. Authority sites are more likely to have top ranking.

Users have tried to use “link exchange” and other techniques to improve their site's ranking. Unless your links are relevant to the content on your site, they could decrease your rank!

If you hire a SEO company, you may have only short-term success. If your site gets banned from a major search engine because of unethical SEO tactics, you will have a much bigger problem than not being included in the top-ten list.

Adding Your Site

To get your website linked, click on the Help menu for the search engine you wish to list your site with. Each search engine has a different method for submitting new sites for inclusion and there are no guarantees.

Remember, the site will require a reason to list your site in their search results. Provide quality, original material that others will find useful or entertaining.

Search Tools For Your Site

If your site contains more than just a few pages, you might wish to consider adding a search facility for your site. While the major search engines can do an excellent job of providing a listing of relevant pages on your site, you might wish to keep visitors on your site as they search for something there rather than sending them off to compare your pages with your competitor's site.

Return to top

Permission to duplicate this resource by Jovana Milutinovich from has been revoked.

Design Standards

Probably the hardest lesson for many people to learn is that web designers don't have the control that print designers take for granted.

Different Browser = Different Experience

Web sites are created and will be viewed using different web browsers and operating systems, which means you don't have the absolute control that you would have with a print project.

To further complicate this, your page will be viewed using various screen resolutions on multiple platforms (computers, cell phones, tablets, etc.).

You'll want to minimize the problems your site visitors may encounter and how to adapt your site to display optimally on all devices.

Web Standards

W3C is the body working to set the standards for HTML, CSS, XML, DOM and other aspects of the Web.

The W3C site's content may be a bit intimidating since it is aimed at those designing and building browsers rather than the average web designer, but it is the place where the standards are created. Unfortunately, the implementation of those standards is less than perfect.

Issues with Internet Explorer

Internet Explorer (IE) has interpreted web standards differently for each version and has done so deliberately to use their operating system dominance to make the other guys look bad. To further complicate this, each version of IE has its own quirks.

Until recently, many designers coded for compliance then added hacks to deal with the quirks of the IE browsers (one of the most famous being the “Holy Hack”).

Beginning with IE 7, Microsoft began adhering more closely to the standards they'd been a part of developing all along, creating a dilemma for those with IE hacks in their site markup.

The most recent versions of IE (IE 8 and later) are mostly compliant with the standards and have opened up the Web to newer technologies. As a result, many (including Microsoft themselves) began a campaign to get rid of IE 6.

Recently, designers are using more compliant design methods that enable sites to display optimally on all devices and browsers.


A newer area of compliance is accessibility for those that use screen readers and other tools to "view" web content. This is an area that is relatively unknown to many, yet is important both to provide for access to those individuals and to comply with existing or pending legislation in many jurisdictions.

Standards Imperfect

Unfortunately, the implementation of those standards is less than perfect. These sites provide you with access to ways to minimize the impact those differences will have on visitors to your site.

  • is an interesting site to compare the various support levels for JavaScript, DOM, CSS and other standards. He documents even unusual and ancient browsers.
  • SitePoint has excellent design content and forums. Their books are strongly recommended, if you are serious about your coding.
  • W3 Schools provides tutorials as well as various references and examples to demonstrate how various web technologies are employed and what effects they can have.

Cascading Style Sheets

Cascading style sheets (CSS) has moved from merely altering HTML to replacing much of the layout and design functions that HTML performed in earlier versions. These sites will give you an idea of the possibilities and provide you with some tools to work with:

  • The CSS Zen Garden demonstrates the power of using CSS for layout (see the "select a design" menu).
  • Box Lessons examines the creation of CSS layout (boxes) and has wonderful links to other sites.
  • Layout-o-Matic provides a quick way to set up a typical one- two- or full-page layout using CSS.

HTML 5 Browser Support

HTML5test: how well does your browser support HTML 5?

There are a number of sites that provide information about which web browsers work with which features.

Older Browsers

Need to support an older browser? Browser Archive has an incredible number of archived browsers including earlier versions of Internet Explorer and Netscape.

User Groups

Sometimes it just helps to talk to someone that has faced the same challenges and can provide a working solution.

Return to top

HTML Validation Tools

These tools will help you to avoid HTML errors, spelling mistakes and code that stops users with different or older browsers from viewing your web pages. Most of the spelling checkers will not recognize British or Canadian spellings of words such as colour and flavour, and will not recognize most proper names. Some offer more complete services for a fee.

HTML Validation

  • W3 Validator is an excellent free resource that will help correct issues with your pages so they will display correctly.

Addons for Web Developers

Firefox has a number of addons that make validating your pages much easier. Most have now been replaced with Firefox Developer Tools.

Unsigned Addons

Firefox now treats unsigned addons with suspicion and many older ones now carry a permissions warning.

This affects the following addons:

Google PageRank: Gone

Google has changed the way it measures the placement of a site. PageRank no longer works (nor do the addons that displayed it).

Return to top

Related Resources

Related resources on this site:

or check the resources index.

Return to top

If these pages helped you,
buy me a coffee!
Updated: March 11, 2017