Russ Harvey Consulting - Computer and Internet Services

Windows 10

Features | Personalizing | Sharing Files | Privacy | Security
Updates | Upgrading

Windows 10 sort of restores the Start menu.

Windows 10 Has Matured

When it first released, Windows 10 abandoned much of what we'd come to expect from a Microsoft operating system. An improvement over Windows 8, it included a workable Start menu and provided support for the traditional desktop using a keyboard and mouse.

Windows 10 has matured significantly in the five years since it was first released. This is good, because there is no other option unless you wish to abandon the Windows world altogether.

Back in 2015, Microsoft's vision for Windows 10 was expansive. It would run on a dizzying assortment of devices: smartphones running Windows Mobile, small tablets like the 8-inch Dell Venue 8 Pro 5000 series, PCs in traditional and shape-shifting configurations, Xbox consoles, the gargantuan conference-room-sized Surface Hub, and the HoloLens virtual reality headset.


In 2020, that vision has been scaled back. Windows 10 Mobile is officially defunct, and small Windows 10 tablets have completely disappeared from the market. Of all those chips scattered across the craps table, only the 2-in-1 Windows device category appears to have paid off. —ZDNet

That isn't to say that there hasn't been growing pains — there have been some doozies — but recent versions are quite workable.

Supported Lifetime Redefined

Windows 10 was released on July 29, 2015 with support ending October 14, 2025.

Microsoft added a wrinkle: support is only valid for the supported lifetime of the device.

The Modern Lifestyle Policy requires that you continually maintain Windows 10 major updates and meet other criteria to retain support.

This is currently defined as 1 year of support for each of the major spring and fall updates.

Legacy Hardware Support Uncertain

Your hardware is going to determine the supportability of your computer. As it ages and newer technology emerges it becomes more likely that support for legacy hardware will be removed and your computer could become unsupported.

Windows 10 will not upgrade older systems, including those running the Atom processor-based systems past the Anniversary Update. End of support for some devices is determined by the manufacturer's discontinued support for hardware, including the loss of support for a single key component within your system.

Mobile-first, Cloud-first

Windows 10 was launched as a “mobile-first, cloud-first” hybrid.

Windows 10 is a mobile operating system designed to work with a Microsoft account, which provides access to OneDrive cloud storage and a growing number of online applications, such as Calendar, People, Tasks, Office, Sway, etc. It allows you to save files from your PC to OneDrive (eg from WordPad), as well as to create files online. — The Guardian
It's almost impossible to avoid the cloud now, because of the movement of commercial and government services to the web, the multiplication of computing devices and the rapid growth in smartphones. These different trends reinforce one another. — The Guardian

Windows 10 Editions

Windows 10 is designed as a single operating system with 12 different editions. The most common are Home and Pro, but there are also editions for educational and enterprise clients as well as other specialized versions.

Windows 10 S mode (formerly Windows 10 S) is designed to be more secure (it can only run apps downloaded from the Windows Store). Given that you can only use the Edge browser and Bing search, you may choose to leave S mode, but that is a one-way decision.



Windows 10 retail licenses include:

Additional features available in Pro include BitLocker encryption (see Encryption: Protecting Your Data), Remote Access, and the ability to run Hyper-V virtualization on your PC. Some features require special hardware.

Windows as a Service

Windows 10 is Software as a Service (SaaS) — software running on the Internet.

We think of Windows as a Service — in fact, one could reasonably think of Windows in the next couple of years as one of the largest Internet services on the planet. — Microsoft Blog
Microsoft executives made it very clear that buying a Windows license — or a device with Windows 10 on it — would ensure Windows owners had a license to Windows 10 for the life of the device. But Microsoft has also said that it wants to entice you to pay for additional services over that lifespan. — PCWorld

Designed for Mobile Access

People are more mobile and many want to access all their information on the go. Windows 10 was designed to meet the needs of the mobile user.

In the Cloud

Windows 10 is a cloud-based operating system hybrid.

In the past, Windows could be thought of as software that only exists on your device. Now, with Windows 10, important parts of Windows are based in the cloud, interacting with online services. — Microsoft

Placing your data “in the cloud” provides the ability to stop working on one devices and resume on another. Users can move between desktop and mobile devices as needed without losing productivity.

You No Longer Control Your Data

Of course, this also means that you no longer have direct control of your data and it is accessible to anyone anywhere in the world if your password is compromised (and probably accessible to cloud storage facility staff without any compromise unless you encrypt it before uploading files). This is not unique to Microsoft.

Local Searches Sent to Cloud

When you do a search for a local document or file on your Windows 10 computer, Microsoft sends the information about your system files up to their servers and does the search using Bing. That's what it means to be a cloud-based Windows system.

That only makes sense if you consider two things:

  1. it would allow for thin-client integration (computers that depend upon a cloud-based server to function much like Chromebook); and
  2. it would provide Microsoft more information about the sorts of files you have on your computer which could allow them to create a more accurate profile of you to improve advertising conversion rates.
So far, no privacy advocates or government agencies have come forward with any discoveries that contradict Microsoft's insistence that telemetry data is used only for product improvement. —ZDNet

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Windows 10 Features

Windows 10 is designed to take advantage of newer hardware and enables futuristic technologies like holographic computing, biometric login (Windows Hello), Windows Ink and 3D printing. The older your hardware, the greater the incentive to purchase a new computer to take advantage of the features that are important to you.

It also means that those features may not remain for 10 years like past versions of Windows. This could be problematic if you depend upon legacy capabilities, but also opens up the ability to adapt very quickly to emerging technologies.

Additional features are added with each Windows 10 Update (now named by the release date).

At Launch

Windows 10 has gone through some changes as it matured. The following is a screen capture of an early Preview release showing the Start menu in desktop mode:

Windows 10 Preview 10242

Cortana and Microsoft Edge were the most notable new items. The monetization of Windows included ads and the subscription fees to get rid of them.

Microsoft Edge

Microsoft Edge is designed for modern websites using HTML5 and JavaScript rather than traditional plugins. Disable Flash in Edge's settings.

Bing Default Search Engine

Bing is the default search option. You need to load any alternative search engine before you're offered the ability to add it. You cannot remove Bing.

Internet Explorer Replaced but Not Gone

Internet Explorer is best described as a compatibility solution (a way to view obsolete websites that cannot be viewed on modern browsers). Microsoft's security chief tells users, IE is not a browser, so stop using it as your default.

Edge Going Chromium

Legacy Edge (originally shipped with Windows 10) has been replaced with a new Edge based upon Google's Chromium.

This has increased Edge's market share since the conversion, and Edge has some features lacking in Chrome.


If Continuum recognizes that a keyboard is installed Windows 10 automatically switches to the desktop mode. In Windows 10 desktop mode, apps can be windowed and resized (unlike Windows 8 which ran everything full screen).

Microsoft Default Apps Reset

Choosing to anything but Microsoft's defaults for email, maps, music player, photo viewer, video player and web browser can no longer be accomplished from within third-party apps.

You need to open Settings, select Apps then Default Apps from the list on the left. You can now choose your preferred alternative from the drop-down list. If you change your mind, there is a reset button to restore the Microsoft defaults.

Xbox Integration

The integration of Xbox with Windows 10 will allow gamers to play their Xbox games on their PC. It cannot be fully uninstalled.

For those of us that aren't Xbox gamers, it means that system resources are taken up by a feature we don't want.

Xbox is the portal to all of Microsoft's entertainment offerings: the movies you can rent or buy and the Groove music services they hope you'll subscribe to. Ka-ching!

Like Windows 10, Xbox is tied to an online account using your Microsoft ID and provides the ability to play online with friends. Playing “as a guest” serves video ads lasting up to 60 seconds between games (but you can pay to disable them).

Removing Bloatware

You'll probably find you'll want to get rid of a bunch of the bundled software that comes pre-installed on Windows 10. Not everyone is thrilled with Candy Crush.

These instructions on removing Windows 10's bloatware include links to two freeware apps (10AppsManager and WXAR) that can remove Xbox and other unwanted Win10 apps.

Your mileage may vary and such work-arounds can create issues with future Windows Updates.

Refreshing Windows 10 may reinstall Microsoft apps and restore defaults to those apps, uninstalling third-party apps in the process.

Getting Started Guides

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Personalizing Windows 10

You'll want to make Windows 10 your own. Personalization has options to change your desktop and lock screen background, the Start menu and more.

Click on the Start button then Settings then Personalization (or right-click the desktop and choose Personalize).

Start Menu

The Start menu is an improvement from the Windows 8 experience but not as flexible as the traditional Windows Start menu (Windows 7 and earlier).

The open Start menu has changed slightly since Windows 10 launched but the various programs are listed in alphabetical order on the left beside a series of “folder” icons (power, settings, pictures, documents, account).

Pinned Apps

In addition to the alphabetical listing, Windows 10 allows you to pin apps to either the taskbar or to the Start menu. Pinned apps can be resized and live tiles turned on or off. Most Used and Recently Added apps are options.

You can resize and reorder these icons as well as enable/disable live status or uninstall most unwanted apps (Xbox and some other Microsoft programs don't have that option).

Uninstalling a built-in Windows 10 Universal app removes it from your user profile, but it doesn't remove the source files for the app from the system. If you set up an additional user account, you'll need to go through the uninstall routine for that account. — ZDNet

Early versions of Windows 10 didn't treat most non-Microsoft icons very well, but that is no longer the case.

Start Menu Alternatives

If you don't like the default Start menu, third-party options are available:

  • Start10 from Stardock ($6.99 — included with Stardock's Object Desktop suite at $40.99) recreates the Windows 7 style menu in Windows 10.
  • Classic Shell (free) provides Windows 10 with a Start button plus other enhancements but is no longer being developed as of December 17, 2017.
  • Open Shell provides a classic style Start Menu for Windows 7, 8, 8.1 and 10 based upon Classic Shell.

If you've used the Windows 10 interface for a while, you may find that reverting to an alternative interface doesn't help your productivity.

Repairing the Start Menu

Desktop or Tablet Mode

There are two basic modes: desktop mode and tablet mode. Your choice is going to be based upon your hardware and personal preferences but you can switch back and forth.

The primary difference is that tablet mode has a simplified Start menu with larger icons (similar to Windows 8's menu) and the desktop is not available to place icons. I'm going to focus on the desktop mode because that is what I use.

Desktop Mode

The desktop mode is clearly more optimized for touch than legacy Windows:

Windows 10
The open Start menu in desktop mode.

Tablet Mode

Tablet mode allows you to use your computer like a tablet by emphasizing Windows 10's touch capabilities.

Windows 10
The open Start menu in tablet mode.

As touch becomes more common on computers, this feature will become more useful.

The Lock Screen

The lock screen can be configured with images from Windows Spotlight, theme pictures or images on your computer as well as various apps such as time/date, weather, etc. The lock screen is shown below:

The Windows 10 Lock Screen can be configured in Settings

The Taskbar

The taskbar has three main groups of content:

  • Start, Search and File Viewer.
  • Pinned Apps.
  • Network, Speakers, Language, clock/calendar, Notifications, Show Desktop.

You can choose whether to include or configure several optional items including your search options, Cortana button, Task View, People, Windows Ink and Touch Keyboard.

Show Desktop is separated by a vertical line at the far right and clears everything on the desktop so you can see your icons and your wallpaper.

Many of these settings can be removed or modified by right-clicking the taskbar or via Windows settings and may be different in desktop and tablet modes.

Pin Frequent Apps on Taskbar

I recommend pinning only your most frequently used apps on the taskbar. Unpin the Microsoft defaults you don't use and pin the apps you use frequently.

Prioritize Notifications

There are several new icons on the left side of the taskbar including Task View and even more on the left side including People, Windows Ink Workspace, Touch Keyboard, Language (a new way of displaying the language bar) and Notifications (which brings up the Action Center).

Settings for Cortana (available by right-clicking the Taskbar) has changed over time, beginning as a part of the Search/Cortana unit to separation of Cortana onto its own setting.

Windows Settings

Windows 10 uses Settings to manage much of what was contained in the Control Panel in earlier versions of Windows, including Personalization.

Screen capture showing the Windows 10 Settings

The Settings panel includes System, Devices, Network & Internet, Personalization, Accounts, Time & Language, Ease of Access, Privacy and Update & Security categories.

The majority of settings are found under Settings (in the Start menu).

Searching for Advanced Options

If you don't find the setting you're looking for, try searching using the “Find a setting” search box. Windows 10 will provide suggestions but if you don't know what it is called, searching for it may be a challenge.

For example, I needed to search for “advanced printer setup” when installing a networked printer because the default Devices settings couldn't locate it.

Configuration Tools

Right-clicking the Start icon allows you to see a list of useful configuration options like Apps & Features, Device Manager, Disk Management, Network Connections and System without searching for them. Again, this listing is subject to change as Windows 10 evolves.

Tablet Settings

In Windows 10 you have much more control over how your computer starts and the transition is much smoother. You'll need to customize your experience for what works best for you and your hardware.

You can switch between tablet mode and desktop mode.

Screen capture showing the Windows 10 Tablet Settings

  • In tablet mode the appearance and function is much like Windows 8.1. The desktop is unavailable.
  • In desktop mode the Start button provides access to settings, an alphabetic listing of apps and pinned apps.

I've noticed many users that use the touch option are more likely to search for programs and settings than to look for them in a menu.

Action Center

The Action center (click on Notifications) includes a series of options for autoplay and program alerts as well as several settings. It is the highlighted taskbar icon located at the bottom right in the image below:

Screen capture showing the Windows 10 notifications center

Taming Windows 10

How to fix the most annoying things in Windows 10. Some fixes require editing the Registry (read the warning).

Learning More

These resources offer more help in personalizing various aspects of Windows 10:

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Sharing Files

If you have more than one computer or want to share files such as videos, photos, documents, etc. with other computers or other people, you will need to set up your network to allow this.

HomeGroup — Gone

Windows 10 initially supported HomeGroup, the method of sharing files used by Windows 7. HomeGroup is no longer available although you may see it listed as you make the necessary changes to view files and folders across your network.

Simple Sharing

The easiest method to share specific files, folders or drives is Simple Sharing. Be careful sharing entire drives.

Allow Private Sharing

Ensure that you have allowed Private Sharing

  1. go to Network & Internet in Settings;
  2. select Sharing Options;
  3. make sure Network Discovery and File & Printer Sharing are turned on in Private Network;
  4. then choose the Media Streaming Options under All Networks.

Choose What to Share

Now you can right-click on a file or folder you wish to share

  1. select Give Access To;
  2. choose Specific People (ignoring HomeGroup);
  3. click the arrow to add Everyone (recommended for most users on private networks);
  4. choose either Read or Read/Write for the Permission Level; then
  5. click on Share to complete the process.

You have the option to make files available as read-only or to enable changes:

  • Read provides the ability for everyone on your network to read documents or play videos or music in the shared folder.
  • Read/Write provides the ability to edit or delete the contents of the shared folder.

You'll want to be careful with Read/Write. Another user on your network might delete an important document.

Restart to Finish

You may need to restart all your computers before the settings are visible.

Adding Windows Credentials

I also had to go into the Control Panel and add the credentials for the other computer(s) on the network. In the following I assume that the networked computer is Main-PC and the user is Joe:

  1. open Control Panel;
  2. search for “Manage Windows Credentials”
  3. under Windows Credentials, click on Add a Windows credential.

The following dialogue box appears:

Screen capture showing the Windows 10 Add Credentials dialogue box

Enter the Credentials

Enter the following information (based upon our example system and user noted above):

  1. Enter the network address in the first box (e.g. Main-PC)
  2. Enter the user name in the second box (e.g. Joe)
  3. Enter the user's computer password in the third box (i.e. Joe's password).

Network addresses and user names are case sensitive.

Restart to Finish

When you've completed this for each computer that you want to access over your network, you should be able to see whatever files are being shared on that computer by that user. Unshared files will not be visible.

Try rebooting all the affected computers if you still cannot see the shared files and folders.

Viewing Networked Files

You can open File Explorer then replace the text in the address bar with \\localhost to see a list of shared items on your computer.

Online Networking Resources

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Privacy Concerns

Privacy is too often misunderstood. The “nothing to hide” mantra abuses privacy.

Don't confuse privacy with secrecy. I know what you do in the bathroom, but you still close the door. That's because you want privacy, not secrecy. — Fábio Esteves

The corporations and governments culling this information use anti-hacking laws to jail people that return the favour.

Like many tech companies, Microsoft gathers certain information about you — what you do in Windows and on the web, how and where you use your devices, and what type of content and data you access. — PCMag
So far, no privacy advocates or government agencies have come forward with any discoveries that contradict Microsoft's insistence that telemetry data is used only for product improvement. —ZDNet

Even if this isn't a big deal to you, Microsoft is still using your bandwidth to upload all this telemetry data.

Your Microsoft Account Tracks You

Microsoft requires a Microsoft account for access to the Microsoft Store and for other services like playing games in Xbox.

This requires that you accept the Microsoft Services Agreement, a 12,000-word document where you essentially agree to give up your privacy.

Even the “free” Microsoft Solitaire Collection entices you with the following if don't sign in (play as a guest):

By signing in with a Microsoft Account, you earn Xbox Live Achievements, view Leaderboards, and save your game data in the cloud. Are you sure?

A family member or other user can sign in with their Microsoft Account to provide access to their own data (assuming the user's data is in the cloud or on a removable device attached to your device).

Be aware that such users would have access to any files on your computer and could potentially make unwanted changes.

Monetizing Windows

Don't believe what Microsoft tells you — Windows 10 is not an operating system. Oh, sure, it has many features that make it look like an operating system, but in reality it is nothing more than a vehicle for advertisements. — BetaNews

Continuing cash flow for Microsoft is an obvious plus and consumers will always get the latest and greatest without making a major purchase.

Like mobile phone contracts, it assumes that you'll gladly trade in your computer every two or three years and that you're willing to sacrifice your privacy for very little in return.

Free Apps Now “Freemium”

Many of the Microsoft Windows 10 apps could more accurately be called “freemium” rather than free. Advertising is built into the Microsoft Solitaire, News, Money and Weather and other apps.

The Microsoft Solitaire Collection contains ads which can be disabled for US$1.49 per month or US$9.99 per year (more in Canada). How Windows 10 ruined Solitaire.

Cortana ramps up Bing's market share with every search you make. OneDrive backs up everything to the cloud, and of course you can buy more storage space if you need it.

The Video, Groove Music, and Xbox apps encourage entertainment purchases through Microsoft.

The new Edge browser and the very operating system itself track you to serve targeted ads. The free Office apps encourage paid Office 365 subscriptions to unlock full functionality.

Underneath it all, the Windows Store is the repository for all of Microsoft's vaunted universal apps (and plenty of other things to buy).

Significant Privacy Issues

The fact that Windows 10 collects a lot of personal information has significant privacy issues, particularly in how your private information is used.

Privacy is a basic human need and has nothing to do with having something to hide.

Unlike an erroneous credit card purchase, you can't simply undo the loss of privacy information. Once it is collected, it is extremely unlikely that it can be expunged.

Microsoft has been reluctant to get too specific about the sorts of data it collects and the mechanisms used. Maybe they have something to hide.

Here's what one source says Microsoft collects:

  • Search queries submitted to Bing
  • A voice command to Cortana
  • Private communications including email content
  • Information from a document uploaded to OneDrive
  • Requests to Microsoft for support
  • Error reports
  • Information gathered from cookies
  • Data collected from third parties

Default Settings Turn Everything On

If you purchased a computer with Windows 10 pre-installed or chose the default options when installing Windows 10 then chances are every privacy protection is disabled by default.

The alternatives are displayed second and warn you that you'll lose some functionality.

More than once when updating Windows 10 (now mandatory) these low-privacy defaults have been restored along with restoring the Microsoft apps as default rather than your chosen (and probably safer) alternatives.

Remember, Microsoft is planning on making money the same way Gmail and other free Webmail vendors do — by culling and marketing your profile to advertisers.

Details are Sketchy

Because the details of what is collected and under which conditions it is used, there has been a lot of speculation running from “its what everyone else is doing” to “they vacuum up every detail about you.”

Here's a non-exhaustive list of data sent back: location data, text input, voice input, touch input, webpages you visit, and telemetry data regarding your general usage of your computer, including which programs you run and for how long. — Electronic Frontier Foundation

But Perhaps Improving

More recently, Microsoft has tried to be more forthcoming with Privacy at Microsoft and Windows 10 and Your Online Services. These pages indicate how Windows 10 collects information and what it is used for.

But European Union privacy watchdogs say Windows 10 settings still raise concerns:

Microsoft should clearly explain what kinds of personal data are processed for what purposes. Without such information, consent cannot be informed, and therefore, not valid. — European Union privacy watchdogs

I suspect that the data you share online and keep in your OneDrive is more vulnerable to this, but Windows 10 is a “mobile-first, cloud-first” operating system and will try to store information there first.

By default, Microsoft sets all the privacy settings to ON, collecting everything and allowing apps to have access to your contacts, mail and more.

Spybot Anti-Beacon

Microsoft doesn't necessarily retain your privacy choices when installing updates.

Spybot Anti-Beacon allows you to make significant choices about your Windows 10 privacy settings including many that are hidden or not easily altered. It immunizes your computer so you can check then reset your privacy settings after rebooting your computer (particularly after a Windows Update).

Microsoft has begun to respond to these issues. On January 10, 2017 a new web-based privacy dashboard was released where you could manage your browse data, clear your search history on Bing, review and clear your location data and edit Cortana knows about you.

We want you to be informed about and in control of your data, which is why we're working hard on these settings and controls. And regardless of your data collection choices, we will not use the contents of your email, chat, files, or pictures to target ads to you. — Microsoft Blog

Microsoft Not Alone

It is likely that much of this information is already collected on your mobile device under your current terms of service.

Corporations have taken advantage of our ignorance to gather our personal information for profit. Many ask for access to your contacts, even if there is no functional reason to do so (flashlight apps in Apple's iOS are an example).

We Didn't Complain

It is partly our own fault for blindly accepting the sorts of privacy invasions that Facebook, Gmail and other services extort as the price for their “free” products.

Information on PCs More Sensitive

However, many of us keep much more critical and private information on our PCs than on our mobile devices. As such, leaks can have much more serious repercussions.

Governments also to Blame

To their credit, Microsoft successfully fought the U.S. government's attempts to obtain non-U.S. customer data stored off-shore in Ireland. This may have had more to do with meeting tougher European privacy rules than protecting North American customers. However, there is much pressure world-wide to gather information stored on computers located outside the government's control.

Whatever you allow Microsoft to store or process for you may be provided to the government. The vetting process (i.e. court order requirements) are often circumvented or simply rubber stamped by a secret court. Even Congress has no real knowledge of how the process works and what is actually being collected by their spy agencies.

Cortana: Your Personal Assistant

Cortana, like Siri and Google Now, is a surprisingly effective virtual assistant.

However, accuracy comes at a priceyour privacy.

Accuracy requires a lot of very personal information about your calendar, contacts, habits, relationships, current location, likes, dislikes, etc. If you're signed into your Microsoft Account (anything but a local account), then nothing is anonymous.

Cortana's built from the ground up to get you using Bing — even if you aren't aware you're doing so — and to create a remarkably detailed profile about you for Microsoft. — PCWorld

Changing Privacy Settings

So how do you protect your privacy in Windows 10?

One of the first things you'll want to do is to make changes to the default settings. Some of these settings are chosen during the installation process. The others can be modified.

You might not be able to control all the privacy settings but you should reset the ones that you can.

Check Settings After Updates

As with Facebook, updates to Windows 10 may change the way you control privacy or even undo privacy choices you've made in the past.

Open Settings (look under Start) and click on Privacy. You'll want to turn off at least these two privacy settings (click on Privacy in Settings):

  1. The advertising ID is a unique identifier that helps to provide “personalized” ads (i.e. ads that are based upon sites you've visited, etc.). You're more likely to click on personalized ads than random ads.
  2. The “about how I write” allows Microsoft to track your keystrokes.

You'll also want to click on the “Manage my Microsoft advertising and other personalization info” link and look at the settings for each of the browsers installed on your Windows 10 computer to change those privacy settings.

Shared Updates

By default, Microsoft will obtain Windows Updates not just from their servers but can also share them from other computers on your network or the Internet. The latter is not a good idea from a security point of view.

  1. Click on Settings then open Updates & Security.
  2. Click on Advanced Options then Choose How Updates are Delivered.
  3. Turn off Updates from more than one place.

If you're using wireless you can also limit the downloads of Updates by indicating that you're on a metered connection. This won't work for LAN (non-wireless) connections.

Taming Cortana

Cortana requires a lot of personal information to be most effective, but it comes at a cost.

The data you provide will be used to personalize advertising. The term “personalize” is a euphemism for profiling. This data will make it more likely that you'll click on ads (and your personal profile data can be sold to others).

Change Cortana's settings to reduce what you provide or turn it off altogether.

Other Privacy Guides

The following articles provide more information about restoring some of your privacy:

These Microsoft sites offer insight into setting privacy preferences:

A Local Account Helps to Preserve Privacy

I'd recommend that you can sign in with a local account unless you need to move your work between multiple devices (and have considered the privacy implications).

You might see a security warning that you're not signed into your Microsoft account in the Windows Security panel. You can click “dismiss” to send it away.

Should you use a local or a Microsoft account in Windows 10? is a tutorial that can help you evaluate your choices.

A local account limits or removes many of the capabilities of Windows 10 including personalized searches, effective use of Cortana and the ability to continue your current work on another device even if the data is stored in the cloud.

You will probably find that you don't need all these features but you will better preserve your privacy.

Microsoft tells you how to create a secondary Local Account (one in addition to your Microsoft Account) but that still leaves you vulnerable, at least when logged into the Microsoft Account.

Local Account Hidden

Microsoft has now removed easy access to the use of a local account (the local account option is now invisible if the device is connected to the internet).

Windows 10 version 1809 doesn't actually prevent users from creating a local account but it does urge users to connect the PC to the internet and doesn't state up front that the local account option is not displayed once it is connected. Microsoft dialed back the behavior in the Windows 10 May 2019 Update, version 1903. Microsoft has changed the name of the local account option to 'Domain join instead', which then allows admins to create an offline account. — ZDNet

To preserve your privacy you'll need to do a clean install with only a local account after you've obtained your Windows 10 upgrade.

Privacy Statements

Privacy statements and terms of use often change but companies seldom dump existing information even if a customer declines the new policies.

After Microsoft's “Scroogled” campaign, they proceeded to do exactly what they accused Goggle of doing.

As invasive as it is, Microsoft does allow Windows 10 users to opt out of all of the features that might be considered invasions of privacy. Of course, users are opted in by default, which is more than a little disconcerting…. — BGR

Google Also Ignores Your Privacy

If you have a Gmail account and use Google Chrome as your default browser, then you've already given up much of your privacy, particularly if you're signed into your Google Account while browsing.

Remember, unlike Gmail and similar services where you're exchanging your information for a free service, Windows 10 is NOT free. Even if you took advantage of the “free” upgrade from Windows 7 or 8.1 you'd already paid for those versions of Windows even if it was included in the purchase price of your computer.

Your Data “In the Cloud”

Your data is stored in the cloud on Microsoft OneDrive (formerly SkyDrive) by default rather than on your computer but this setting can be configured to save data only on the computer.

Apps like Mail and Calendar can access other cloud services like your iCloud or Gmail accounts.

The Nature of Mobile Access

Microsoft is responding to the demand for “anywhere, any time, any device” access but will benefit greatly by monetizing the data they'll collect as a result.

Cloud based information is accessible from anywhere with anyone having your login credentials. More significantly, once data is in the cloud you no longer completely control what happens to your personal information or how it is used.

“Free” Data Doesn't Justify Protection

The companies collecting your personal data paid little or nothing for it, so they are unwilling to spend much on securing your data — certainly not what they spend protecting their own data. This won't change until the cost of being hacked is more than the cost of the necessary security upgrades.

Other Concerns

You should also be aware of issues with security when using free WiFi unless you're using a VPN (more about VPNs). Windows 10 now has a VPN button in the Action Center that appears when you click the Notifications button.

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Windows 10 Security

Microsoft boasts that Windows 10 is the most secure ever.

Better Security

There are several new security features, including Secure Boot, Windows Hello and ransomware protection that have appeared as Windows 10 evolved.

Initially Windows 10 Home users were denied the ability to delay updates, but after a couple of disasters, that policy was reversed.

Data Collection Disturbing

Microsoft's data collection policies were quite disturbing when it was first released, partly because they could be shared with “unnamed partners” according to the Microsoft Services Agreement published at that time.

Since then, Microsoft has modified both its Services Agreement and Privacy Statement to be fairer:

Microsoft uses the data we collect to provide you with rich, interactive experiences. In particular, we use data to:
  • Provide our products, which includes updating, securing, and troubleshooting, as well as providing support. It also includes sharing data, when it is required to provide the service or carry out the transactions you request.
  • Improve and develop our products.
  • Personalise our products and make recommendations.
  • Advertise and market to you, which includes sending promotional communications, targeting advertising, and presenting you with relevant offers.
  • Debloat Windows 10 shows you how to remove telemetry, which is unnecessary and drains system resources.

Microsoft Not Alone

Were it only Microsoft that was busy collecting the details of our electronic lives, it would be much easier to simply move to another system. However, that is not the case:

Almost everybody uses products or online services from Big Tech companies. These companies make up a considerable part of our online life.


This concentration of power in some sectors of the digital market (think search, social media, operating systems) by a small number of companies is having devastating effects on our rights. These companies are able to grow exponentially by constantly watching us and harvesting our personal data, which they then sell to data brokers, governments and dodgy third parties. With billions of users, these companies acquire an unprecedented level of knowledge about people's most intimate lives. — European Digital Rights (April 1, 2020)

You Need a Security Suite

Antivirus programs are no longer sufficient. You need a suite of security products to protect your computers and devices from the blended threats present today.

After many years of substandard protection, Windows Defender now provides sufficient protection for many users.

After years of lagging behind competitors, Microsoft Windows Defender has earned a coveted AV-Test "Top Product" award. The free, built-in antivirus software in Windows 10 performs just as well as — or even better than — many of its paid competitors. Your Windows PC can now repel the vast majority of malware threats right out of the box. — Tom's Hardware

While Windows Defender now provides excellent protection for home users right out of the box, I still prefer the comprehensive protection and privacy offered by ZoneAlarm Extreme.

Continual Updates

Continual (non-optional) updates greatly improve overall security but can also force updates that are undesirable because the engineers at Microsoft count on a uniform platform in a Windows as a Service environment.

Problematic Updates

Microsoft has released disastrous updates in the past (even on Windows 10 — consider the cases of loss of personal data following the October 2018 Update).

You might find that you're unable to reboot after a defective update.

Because Windows 10 Updates are an all-or-nothing deal, a bad update cannot be singled out for removal. You can't uninstall only one update component from the monthly updates.

Timing May Not Be Optimal

Major updates can take considerable time to download and install. If this happens in the middle of your workday or an important project that could be much more than inconvenient.

Even though your settings determine when the computer restarts, the download and installation can affect your computer's performance.

Removing Your App Default Choices

Microsoft insists on restoring their apps as defaults after some major updates. Not cool.

Users wanting to use third party apps should be free to do so unless there is a verified security risk in doing so (in which case Microsoft should disable the app and provide information about the vulnerability).

Granted, apps available in the Microsoft Store can be vetted much easier than those downloaded from the Internet, but not everything is available that way and not all retain full functionality.

If a simple update fixes the problem, there is no need to uninstall or disable the third-party app.

Ability to Delay Updates

Depending upon the version of Windows 10 you have and on changes brought about by the major updates, Windows may allow you to delay updates for up to a year. Delay longer than that and you risk having your computer or device labelled as no longer supported.

Complex Passwords Necessary

Because the Microsoft ID is an online login ID, a very long, random and complex password is necessary.

This makes logging in prone to “fat finger” errors. The option to reveal what you've typed can guard against entry errors but doesn't help your memory.

The PIN Option

Thankfully, an option to use a 4-digit PIN is available. The PIN only works on the current device (it is not a universal replacement for your password).

The PIN is tied to the specific device on which it was set up. That PIN is useless to anyone without that specific hardware. — Microsoft

Hello's Biometric Verification

Windows Hello provides a secure method of replacing passwords with biometric verification — provided you have the supporting hardware.

Unfortunately, that hardware was rare on consumer-class computers at Windows 10 launch except for Microsoft's Surface machines. As people move to newer hardware, that capability will become much more common.

Two-factor Authentication

Microsoft is requiring two-factor verification when accessing certain information from your Microsoft Account such as:

  • when doing a clean install and registering it to your Microsoft ID;
  • when making changes to your Microsoft ID; or
  • any suspicious activity leads Microsoft to believe someone else might be using the computer or signed into your account.

Two-factor Options

The two-factor verification includes options to email or text special codes to an already-registered email address or phone number for your Microsoft Account.

Two-factor verification is only available when signed in with your Microsoft Account (but not to Local Accounts).

See About two-step verification for more information.

Protecting Your PC

Learn more about protecting your PC while running Windows 10.


Windows Updates

Windows Updates are generally on the second Tuesday of the month.

Prepare for Recovery

Before updating Windows, be sure you have a plan for recovery.

  1. Being prepared for a disaster can be critical if an update fails.
  2. If you encounter problems, have a look at troubleshooting failed updates.

May 2020 Update

Update 2004 fixes 129 vulnerabilities, lacks notable features but has reported problems. I recommend delaying.

Microsoft appears to delay the update if your computer has a known issue. “Optional” updates resume in July.

Pause your Windows Updates

Not patching vulnerabilities is risky but so is the possibility that the update may cause issues or crash your computer.

Don't Check for Updates

Do NOT click “check for updates” unless you wish to manually update.

Change Update & Security Settings

You can pause updates by changing these settings:

Settings ⇒ Update & Security ⇒ Pause updates for 7 or more days.

New Features

New features help with productivity, security and speed, but are minor.

  • Edge is updated to the new Chrome-based version.
  • Cortana now a “personal productivity assistant” that can help with Microsoft 365 apps.
  • Virtual desktops can be given personalized names.
  • Windows Search has new search buttons and better capabilities.
  • Bluetooth pairing is moving to notifications from settings.
  • More Control Panel items are moving into settings.
  • Refresh Windows from a cloud-based installer.

Features Removed

Microsoft has removed a number of features from this update and there will be fewer (if any) new features this year.

More about Update 2004

Ongoing Updates

Windows 10 continues to be updated. Check out the following resources to learn more:

Updates History

The following are the major Windows 10 updates since launch:

Troubleshooting Failed Updates

Everything doesn't always go according to plan. Untested hardware combinations can break the update.

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Preparing for Disaster

Develop a recovery plan before something happens.

You should always be prepared for a failure. Disasters are unpredictable.

Develop a Plan

You need to prepare your system for recovery and have a plan for how to recover if something goes wrong with Windows and it won't boot.

Your recovery plan should include knowing how to boot your computer into Recovery Mode as well as having the necessary recovery tools.

Maintain a Current Backup

You should regularly backup your files using a system that ensures that critical files are always recoverable.

Windows Updates are a critical point where failures can occur, so be sure your system is backed up prior to installing updates.

Create a Recovery Drive

A recovery drive can speed up recovery and provides a valuable asset if Windows fails to boot.

Be sure to recreate it after significant changes to your system (such as before each Windows Update) so that it is current when you need it.

Recovery Mode

If Windows 10 won't load, you'll need to be able to get into recovery mode.

Learn how your particular brand of computer loads the recovery console before disaster happens then write it down. Microsoft removed F8 recovery options as a default in Windows 10, so each manufacturer has different methods of reaching the recovery mode.

Documenting how to boot into recovery mode will safe a lot of stress when the inevitable boot failure happens.

Turn On System Restore Now

You can use System Restore to recover from a bad update, but you'll have to turn on System Restore in Windows 10 before that happens.

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Should You Upgrade?

Time has run out. Windows 10 is your only Microsoft option or you must choose one of these other options.

Windows 10 is a much better operating system than when released in 2015, and though there have been some hiccups, the current version works well for most users, particularly on newer hardware.

Hardware Influences Options

Your decision to upgrade, purchase a new Windows 10 system or move to an alternative is greatly influenced by your current hardware.

Whether it's worth upgrading now depends on what sort of PC you have, but the more mobile, the better.


If you have an old desktop PC with no touchscreen, no camera and no microphone, there are fewer benefits.


If you have a modern Windows laptop or 2-in-1 with UEFI firmware, the upgrade is more attractive. — The Guardian

Older Hardware Less Suitable

Many of the newest features in Windows 10 are not supported by the hardware that was around when Windows 7 was released.

  • Unlike when Windows 10 launched, many manufacturers now release computers more suited to Windows 10 and its special requirements.
  • The newest features in Windows 10 like Hello and Ink are unlikely to be supported by older hardware.
  • Microsoft's Universal Windows Platform still needs work.
  • Microsoft's own apps are generally poorer than alternatives although the new Chrome-based Edge has some nice features.
  • Some older peripherals (printers, scanners, etc.) may never have Windows 10 drivers developed.

However, if you upgrade to the newest hardware, you may have no choice.

Unlike its predecessors, Windows 10 is Software as a Service, aggressively collects personal information and is heavily monetized.

Upgrading Windows 7/8.1

The various Windows 10 Updates have added much new functionality — provided it is supported by your hardware.

Upgrading Details Moved

I've moved the information about upgrading to Windows 10 to a new page: Replacing Windows: Preparing to upgrade.

Related Resources

Related resources on this site:

or check the resources index.

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Updated: July 1, 2020