Russ Harvey Consulting - Computer and Internet Services

Windows Basics

Terminology | Mouse Clicks | Menus | File Extensions | Hardware

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New to Computers?

Fears related to “new” technology are nothing recent. The First Tech Support Guy is a humorous spoof on our discomfort with anything new.

Introduction to Windows Basics

This page discusses basic Microsoft Windows terminology and how to perform some basic Windows tasks. This page is not exhaustive, and will be developed as the need arises.

Currently supported versions of Windows range from a focus on keyboard & mouse to the more recent emphasis on touch screens. Some of the content is legacy and may not apply to the version of Windows you're running.

Helpful Outside Resources

A good introductory magazine would be a great resource, since it will have more pictures and diagrams than I have placed here (and costs much less than a book). Tech books have a short shelf life and therefore are more expensive than novels.

Be sure any material you purchase covers the version of Windows you're using. Get something that you understand yet will teach you new concepts.

Conventions Used on this Page

I'll use the term default to refer to the standard options enabled when Windows is installed without customization. If your computer is older or slower, I'd suggest removing any extras.

Computer Basics — General Concepts & Terminology contains a description of many of the general terms used when describing computers and their operation that may not be fully explained on this page.

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Windows Terminology

The images on this page were mostly taken from Windows 7 and may look different than your computer. However, they will serve to introduce you to the general concepts.

Starting with Windows 8, the touch-screen is emphasized which means less reliance on a mouse and keyboard and more like the experience with a tablet or smart phone.

Windows 10 is a mobile-first, cloud-first touch-based operating system that can use a mouse for navigation. As such, it is moving away from the traditional Windows interfaces and precepts. The user has far less control over this version of Windows than any prior version.

Common Windows Items

The following are just some of the terms used to describe the Windows desktop you are likely to run into. Most are indicated in the diagram below the list:

  • Desktop refers to the background of your screen on which the various programs run. Think of your computer screen as your electronic desk.
  • Icons are those small pictures on the desktop and inside folders that represent various programs and sometimes folders.
  • Folders are containers that can contain icons, programs, data or other folders (sub-folders). The default folder icon looks like a Manila file folder but the look varies with different Windows versions.
  • Title bar refers to the bar at the top of an open window that will tell you what the folder/window is (the title) and contains the minimize, maximize and close buttons. You can also use the title bar to move a window around.
  • Cursor is the graphic which indicates where the mouse is and what sort of action it is performing. The cursor will change from the default arrow to various shapes according to the purpose it is serving at the time. For instance, it may form an I-beam shape when you are selecting text in a document or a double-arrow when you are resizing a window.
  • Task bar refers to the bar usually at the bottom of your Windows screen (it can be moved) with the Start Button on the left and the clock on the right.
  • The Scroll Bar appears when there is more information in the window than can be displayed. This is usually a vertical scroll bar, but a horizontal scroll bar may display if the width of the window is too narrow. In some cases, Windows 10 hides scroll bars until you hover over them.
  • The Address Bar allows you to navigate up and down a series of windows by double-clicking on a folder. The folder with the Back/Fwd Buttons in Windows 7 would allow you to return to the previous folder.

While this list is based upon Windows, other operating systems like Mac and Linux use a lot of the same terminology.

The Window

The window (from which the term "Windows" is derived) has various elements. The most common are labelled in the Windows 7 diagram below:

Various components of a Windows 7 window labelled

This folder is one of the optional desktop folders called the User Files. Some of these folders are not standard in Windows 7 such as Dropbox and Screen Captures.

  • The Navigation Pane provides quick links to various folders and locations on your computer.
  • The Title Bar contains no text although it still provides the method for moving the folder.
  • My Documents contains most of your user documents and files (except for music, pictures and videos).
  • The Address Bar has a bread crumb menu. Clicking on any of the listed items (shown here as “ • Russ • ”) takes you to that folder. Clicking behind the address transforms it into the C:\Users\Russ\ format.
    • A longer address example would be “ • Russ • Pictures • Family • ” which would transforms into C:\Users\Russ\Pictures\Family.
    • Clicking on Pictures would take you back to the Pictures folder.
    • Clicking on Russ would take you to the folder shown in the diagram above.

Windows 10's navigation pane and other features are different as are the menu items included but the basic principles are the same.

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Mouse Clicks

Right or Left?

A basic computer mouse

You'll see at least two buttons on your mouse (most current mice have a middle button and may have others). The type of click means the button you push when you click. Left-handed users will have to reverse these instructions.

  • The left-click selects items and will be used most often. If no button is specified, this will be the one you use.
  • If you right-click on an item you will get a context-sensitive menu with a list of the things that you can do with the item you clicked on.

When you right-click to obtain a menu, you will select the menu with the left button (generally just referred to as selecting or clicking — the left mouse button click is assumed).

Context Sensitivity

When you right-click on various locations on the screen the results vary (known as context sensitive):

  • Right-clicking an icon on your desktop will include the option to open it.
  • Right-clicking on the background (desktop) will give you options to arrange icons or refresh the desktop.

When you right-click on various locations on the screen the resulting list of options vary (known as context sensitive).

A very useful selection is Properties option when you right-click on an object. This will give you information about the icon or object you are selecting. The menu options differ between various versions of Windows.

Useful Properties

Some of the more useful Windows 7 options and properties available are found by right-clicking key icons on your desktop (if they don't appear on the desktop, look under the Start button).

For Experienced Users

Some management tools accessed via these menus should only be accessed by knowledgable users. You can seriously damage your Windows installation or stop it from running altogether if you misconfigure the settings.

Unless you understand the consequences, you shouldn't change any of the options.

  • Right-clicking the Desktop provides access to
    • Screen Resolution where you can set screen resolution and some other display preferences; and
    • Personalize where you can modify your desktop icons, background, sounds and screen saver.
  • Right-clicking Computer provides access to
    • Properties which opens System Properties (for information about your computer's hardware including the Windows Experience Index) as well as links to the Device Manager (hardware) & Remote Settings (remote assistance connections to your computer); and
    • Manage which opens Computer Management (including Device Manager under System Tools).
  • Right-clicking the Task Bar provides access to
    • Properties which allows the management of your Taskbar and Start Menu including Aero Peek, power button default action and options for the icons and notifications that appear next to the clock; and
    • Start Task Manager includes Applications (running programs) and Processes (program components) which is particularly useful in closing programs that are not responding (hung).
  • Right-clicking Network Properties gives you your Network and Sharing Center which includes managing your Internet connection.

Windows 10

Windows 10 works somewhat differently and hides many of these options. Users can find these settings by right-clicking the Start Button:

  • Apps and Features
  • Mobility Center
  • Power Options
  • Event Viewer
  • System
  • Device Manager
  • Network Connections
  • Disk Management
  • Computer Management
  • Windows PowerShell
  • Task Manager
  • Settings
  • File Explorer
  • Search
  • Run

The items listed and order have changed significantly since Windows 10 was first released.

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The Windows Menu System

Beginning with Windows Vista there was a move away from the default inclusion of text menus because screens have become wider but relatively shorter. Vertical screen real estate became more valuable.

Legacy Menus

In legacy Windows there is a consistency of the order and nature of menus across various programs. There will almost always be the File, Edit, View and Help menus in the same order although other menus specific to the program you are using may be in between some of these:

  • File: contains the filing options as you might expect such as open and close documents, but also the printer options and usually others such as page setup or import/export options.
  • Edit: contains copy and paste as well as other selection items. It sometimes contains the options for the program you are viewing.
  • View: contains options to change the items you are viewing, including toolbars options.
  • Help: contains help, but clicking on the About sub-menu will give you the program version.


You'll often see sub-menus indicated by a small arrow (or triangle) at the end of menus with additional choices. If you hold your mouse over the menus, they will open up to display their contents or you can click on them.

Keyboard Alternatives

If you look at legacy menus, you'll see that some of the letters are underlined. By using the Alt key in combination with the indicated letter, you can navigate the menu without a mouse — something that is useful if your mouse is not working or if you are typing a document and don't wish to leave the keyboard to use the mouse.

You'll also see other keyboard shortcuts listed to the right of menu items. For instance, Ctrl+p (press and hold the Ctrl key, then press the "p" key) will print the current document.

Touch Devices

With the trend towards touch screens, the physical keyboard is a dying breed (replaced with an on-screen touch-board) so these keyboard alternatives are bound to die.

Hidden & Hamburger Menus

Recent versions of many programs use a “hamburger” menu (Example of a “hamburger” menu.) to indicate the presence of a hidden menu. Other programs use either a stylized vertical (⋮) or horizontal (…) ellipsis.

Text menu options may still work or are simply hidden (in Firefox use the Customize option then look for Show/Hide Toolbars).

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Windows & File Extensions

File extensions are the part of the filename that is after the dot in Windows. For example, a text file like readme.txt has txt as its extension.

Modern Windows More Flexible

Old DOS programs used to be limited to eight letters/numbers before the dot and three after (hence the term 8.3 was commonly used) but spaces weren't allowed and many characters were "reserved."

Current Windows systems allow spaces and can use up to 256 characters before the dot and at least four behind (e.g. Letter to Mary December 25, 2009.docx).

Unfortunately, using large file names can have consequences if you're storing documents in a significant number of nested folders (e.g. C:\Documents\Clients\Miscellaneous\Invoices\2017\May\Acme\Reclassification of the brown widgets on the Douglas Street renovation project.docx). Files may not be able to be copied or backed up into similar folder and file structures because of limitations in Windows.

Extensions Tell What Type of File

The 3 or 4 character extension (the part after the final dot) tells Windows how to deal with a certain file by identifying the type of file it is. By associating a certain extension with a default program to deal with that sort of file, you can open the program by double-clicking on the filename. The type of file is usually indicated by its icon as well.

Common Extensions

There are hundreds of extensions, many of which are proprietary (e.g. specific to a particular program) and quite a few that are legacy (no longer in active use). Some of the more common ones are:

  • .txt text file
  • .doc Microsoft Word document
  • .docx Microsoft Word open XML document (Word 2007 or later)
  • .xls Microsoft Excel spreadsheet
  • .xlsx Microsoft Excel open XML spreadsheet (Excel 2007 or later)
  • .ppt Microsoft PowerPoint presentation document
  • .pptx Microsoft PowerPoint open presentation document (PowerPoint 2007 or later)
  • .html Web page (Hypertext Markup Language) file
  • .mp3 audio (music) file
  • .pdf Adobe Portable Document Format file (Adobe Reader)
  • .jpg JPEG image file (usually a photo)
  • .iso Disc Image File used to create a CD or DVD

Many programs can open these extensions other than the ones indicated. LibreOffice and other suites can open and save Microsoft Office documents and PDFs can be opened with any PDF reader such as Nitro PDF Reader.

Unlisted Extensions

If you wish to learn what a file is used for, you can visit's list of common file extensions (if you don't see the extension in the common files, click a letter at the top that the extension you're looking for begins with).

Dangerous Extensions

There are many more of these that you are likely to see. Some Windows extensions can indicate programs that can do harm to your computer. Remember, if you're unsure it is better to ignore a file than to get yourself into trouble by clicking on it.

You should always be careful with files that have the following extensions, particularly if attached to an email message, because they can be used to install malicious or unwanted programs:

  • .pif program information file
  • .exe executable (program) file
  • .bat batch file — can call other files including program or scripting files
  • .scr scripting file — sometimes mistakenly called a screen saver file

Most users should not see any of these sorts of files attached to emails. While any of these could be legitimate files it is far more likely that it was included with the intention of infecting your computer with a virus or malware.

Unfortunately, scripting in Microsoft Office has lead to vulnerabilities in those common files as well. Never open an unexpected document, even from a known source, without checking it for malware.

Many file extensions are not safe to open unless provided by a trusted source (and verified by the sender separate from the email).

“Known” Extensions Hidden By Default

Windows hides "known" extensions by default. These are extensions that Windows "knows." You may not.

Microsoft wanted to make Windows look less intimidating, but you should re-enable the display of these extensions (see Folder Options).

An Example

For example, if you see a file attached to an email, you may not know that the attachment is unsafe to open:

  • If extensions are hidden, Windows displays phonelist.txt.scr as phonelist.txt, hiding the actual .scr extension) allowing you to assume (mistakenly) that it is a text document and therefore safe to open.
  • However, as noted earlier, the .scr extension is seldom safe to open — especially when you are unsure of the source (.scr is a scripting file, NOT a screen saver).
  • Even if you received the message from a friend, it may not be safe or could have been attached by a virus on their computer or someone that has hacked their email address (webmail programs like Gmail, Yahoo! and ).

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Hardware Specifications

Your computer's specifications includes the version of Windows you're running, your hardware, Windows registration or activation status and product ID information.

Locating System Information

This information is available under System in the Control Panel. Depending upon what version of Windows you're viewing this on, you can choose one of these options:

  • Windows Vista, 7 and 8 users can right-click on Computer then select Properties to show System.
  • Alternatively, click on Start ⇒ Control Panel ⇒ System.
  • Search for System.
  • Windows 10 users can right-click on the Start Button then select System.

System Information Displayed

For example, it might show:

  • Windows edition shows currently installed Windows version and service pack.
  • System shows the processor, amount of installed RAM, system type (32- or 64 bit Operating System) and whether it has a pen or touch input.
  • Computer name, domain and workgroup settings.
  • Windows activation shows if Windows is activated and the Product ID (with the option to change the product key). There should also be a Genuine Microsoft Software image showing if Windows is activated.

The Windows Experience Index

Viewing System in Windows Vista, 7 and 8 also displays the Windows Experience Index. Learn more.

This information isn't automatically provided for Windows 8.1 and 10.

Got RAM?

RAM is usually one of the least expensive upgrades to your system; sufficient amounts will make a world of difference to your computing experience.

  • Windows Vista or Windows 7 will require at least 2 GB of RAM to run properly — 4 GB for 64-bit systems.
  • 32-bit systems generally cannot recognize more than 2.5 GB of RAM. The usable amount over 2 GB varies depending upon the hardware and operating system.

While the "minimum requirements" might be less than shown above, a computer with the bare minimum will run Windows but not necessarily the programs you use (or it can be extremely unresponsive).

If your system is sluggish or you see a lot of drive activity (called thrashing where the hard drive activity light comes on frequently for extended periods of time), adding more RAM may improve performance.

What If You Can't Upgrade?

At a certain point, upgrades are no longer enough (nor cost-efficient) and you'll want to invest in a new computer. Don't try to save a few dollars by scrimping on the capability of your new computer. It will cost you more in the long run. Spend more now to get better performance and to allow for future expansion and upgrades.

If your needs are simple (email and web surfing plus uncomplicated documents) you can consider running Linux. Not only are most Linux distributions free, but they will run on many older Windows machines and provide all the basics. Linux will continue to be supported in the current version or upgradable to future versions — all at no charge.

You can search for missing or updated drivers using StartPage. The search query is passed onto Google without revealing your IP address and other private information. Learn more….

Be Specific

Typing in a phrase will help you to find what you're looking for (e.g. "HP color laserjet CP1215 Windows 7 drivers").

The more specific you are the more likely you are to find what you need. The search example above is more likely to return acceptable results than a “HP drivers” search query.


Just because a listing for your drive is listed doesn't mean that you should follow that link.

  • Avoid the ads and sponsored listings (usually differentiated with a background).
  • Avoid “driver update” software and be wary of sites such as
  • Avoid sites where files are provided by users (files may be corrupted or otherwise harm your computer).

Look for links that point to the manufacturer's site (e.g. for the HP example above).

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Related Resources

Related resources on this site:

or check the resources index.

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If these pages helped you,
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Updated: August 21, 2018